Peter Enns, Inspiration and Incarnation: Evangelicals and the Problem of the Old Testament

I do not think I’d ever heard of Peter Enns until Inspiration and Incarnation apparently led to his being purged in 2008 from the faculty at Westminster Theological Seminary. It still took me another ten years to read it. I both can and cannot see the fuss.

To Fuss
Westminster Theological Seminary has always been a fundamentalist institution, in the most literal sense of the word, and WTS still tells its own story in those Evangelical vs. Liberalism terms. As someone whose earliest Christian faith was formed in American evangelicalism, I still had very little contact with the Reformed part of that world. In my experience, even religious historians miss some of the diversity present under the umbrella that is American evangelicalism. I’ve been around and worshiped among evangelical Baptists, evangelical Methodists/Wesleyans, evangelical non-denominational Christians, evangelical Charismatics/Pentecostals, evangelical Stone-Campbell descendants, evangelical Anglicans, evangelical Lutherans, and even a few evangelical Roman Catholics. But I’ve rarely actually been in evangelical Reformed circles, despite the fact that they’ve had a muscular presence in American evangelical thought and especially publishing for over a hundred years. I wasn’t formed by Christians who knew or cared enough to have an opinion about Westminster Presybyterianism vs. Princeton Presbyterianism. But it makes complete sense that an institution that was founded in 1929 order to separate to stay theologically pure would still work to stay theologically pure just 80 years later.

Not to Fuss
The title metaphor and thesis is this: there is a similarity between 1) the nature of the God-man, Jesus, and 2) the divine and human elements which together make Scripture. Enns then details “human” pieces of Scripture, such as similarities between the Old Testament and other Ancient Near Eastern texts (e.g., Utnapishtim‘s flood and Noah’s flood), as well as diversity of both historical (e.g., Samuel-Kings vs. Chronicles) and theological (e.g., Proverbs vs. Ecclesiastes) claims within Scripture. All in all, it seems to me exactly what an evangelical academic Biblical scholar would do, one teacher’s attempt to be honest about difficulties that arise when we read the Bible closely and as unique sacred Scripture, then try to reckon with those difficulties.

Review
The title metaphor is so loose that it’s not helpful. The doctrine of the Incarnation says Jesus is unique in being fully human and fully divine. By the end of his book, Enns has argued that the Bible is neither fully human nor fully divine. What’s more, because of the fallout from this book and because of the trajectory of his follow-up books and career into a comfortably progressive (or post-)evangelical space (complete with effusive blurb circles with Rob Bell, Rachel Held Evans, Tony Jones, Brian McLaren, Phyllis Tickle), I wonder if this book was Enns’ attempt to reach for a way forward but also stay right where he was. That is, I wanted a more daring book, and this is a cautious book which reads like Enns is pulling his punches. I will not widely recommend this book, but I am interested in at least checking out an audiobook of his work since.

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